Carbon Dioxide二氧化碳

Carbon dioxide is nonflammable, colorless, and odorless in the gaseous and liquid states. The gas is approximately one and one-half times as heavy as air. Carbon dioxide is a minor but important constituent of the atmosphere, averaging about 0.03% or 300 ppm by volume. Since dry carbon dioxide is a relatively inert gas, special materials of construction are not required. In the event moisture is present in high concentrations, carbonic acid may be formed and materials resistant to this acid should be used. High flow rates or rapid depressurization of a system can cause temperatures approaching the sublimation point (-109.3F[-78.5C]) to be attained within the system. Carbon dioxide will convert directly from a liquid to a solid if the liquid is depressurized below76 psia (61 psig). The use of materials which become brittle at low temperatures should be avoided in applications where temperatures less than -20F(-29C) are expected. Vessels and piping used in carbon dioxide service should be designed to the American Society of Mechanical Engineers (ASME) or Department of Transportation(DOT) codes for the pressures and temperatures involved.
在液态和气态时二氧化碳是不可燃、无色、无嗅的。气体比空气重大约1.5倍。二氧化碳是空气的含量较小但很重要的组成成分,体积比平均约为0.03%或300 ppm。由于干燥的二氧化碳是相对不活泼的气体,不要求特殊的建材。在水蒸汽浓度很高的情况下,可以生成碳酸,这时应使用对该酸有抵抗力的材料。系统的高流速或迅速降压可以在系统内获得接近升华点(-109.3F[-78.5C])的温度。   如果液体压力降到76 psia (61 psig)以下,直接从液态转化到固态。在预期温度低于-20F(-29C)的应用中应该避免使用在低温下变脆的材料。用于二氧化碳设施的容器和管道要根据相关的压力和温度按照美国机械工程师协会(ASME)或交通部(DOT)的规范来设计。。
Carbon dioxide can be stored as a bulk liquid in large storage vessels with capacities up to 50 tons and larger. The liquid in the tank is maintained between 245 psig and 305 psig. When the tank pressure reaches 305 psig, a mechanical air-cooled refrigeration unit is activated which cools the tank contents and thereby reduces the pressure to about 295 psig. When pressure drops to 245 psig, a portion of the liquid is passed through a pressure buildup coil which vaporizes the liquid in the coil, and the resultant vapor is sent to the tank’s vapor space until a tank pressure of 255 psig is attained. In isolated instances where carbon dioxide usage is extremely low, heat leak into the tank is sufficient to maintain the contents above 245 psig and a pressure buildup coil is not needed. The bulk storage tank can either supply gas from the vapor space or liquid from the bottom of the tank. If warmer carbon dioxide gas is desired, vapor is withdrawn from the vapor space in the storage tank and superheated. Bulk storage tanks are filled by liquid transport trailers.
二氧化碳可以作为液体大量储存在容量大到50吨和更大的大型储存容器内。容器内的液体压力维持在245 psig和305 psig。当容器压力达到305 psig时,启动机械空气冷却制冷设备,使容器内容物降温,从而压力降到约295 psig。当压力降到245 psig时,部分液体流过一个压力积累蛇管,蛇管使其内部的液体蒸发,产生的蒸气送到容器的蒸气空间,直到容器压力达到255 psig。在二氧化碳用量极低的隔热场合,泄漏进容器的热量足以使内容物的压力维持在245 psig以上,因此不需要压力积累蛇管。大容量储存容器能够或者从蒸气空间供应气体,或者从容器底部供应液体。如果需要温度更高的二氧化碳气体,可以从蒸气空间提取出蒸气,并使其过热。由液体运输拖车来灌装大容量容器。
Carbon dioxide is also pumped as a liquid into high-pressure cylinders which are filled by weight. The amount of carbon dioxide gas contained in a cylinder is determined by multiplying the weight of the liquid by the specific volume at 68F (20C) and 1 atmosphere pressure, (8.70 cu. ft./lb.). The vapor pressure of the liquid stored in the cylinder @ 68F (20C) is 816 pounds per square inch gauge (psig).Cylinders can be supplied with standard valves for gas withdrawal or with siphon tubes connected internally to the valves for liquid withdrawal.
还可以把二氧化碳泵入根据重量来灌装的高压钢瓶。液体的重量乘以在68F (20C)和1个大气压时的比容(8.70 cu. ft./lb.),就是在钢瓶内容纳的二氧化碳气体的数量。储存在68F (20C)的钢瓶内的液体的蒸气压是816磅每平方英寸(psig)。钢瓶可以配有用于气体提取的标准阀门或在内部连接到阀门的用于液体提取的虹吸管。
Carbon dioxide is also stored and shipped as a liquid in cryogenic cylinders at reduced temperature and at a pressure of about 300 psig.
二氧化碳还可以作为液体在压力减小到大约300 psig的低温钢瓶内储存和运输,
The molecular symbol for carbon dioxide is CO2.

Carbon dioxide does not support life and may produce immediately hazardous atmospheres. At concentrations in excess of 1.5%, carbon dioxide may produce hyperventilation, headaches, visual disturbances, tremor, loss of consciousness, and death. Symptoms of exposure in the concentration ranges of 1.5–5% may be highly variable but typical symptoms of carbon dioxide intoxication are listed under Exposure Reactions.
If the concentration of carbon dioxide exceeds 10%, exposure may produce profound metabolic aberrations, disturbances of the central nervous system, and cardiac irritability; unconsciousness can occur without warning, preventing self-rescue. At much higher concentrations, carbon dioxide displaces the oxygen in air below levels necessary to support life.

Exposure Limit暴露极限
The TLV-TWA for CO2, as listed by American Conference of Governmental Industrial Hygienists and by the Occupational Safety and Health Administration, is 5000 parts per million, or 0.5%.The CAS # for CO2 is 124-38-9.
正如美国政府工业卫生学者会议和职业安全和健康管理局所列出的,对于二氧化碳的TLV-TWA值是百万分之5000或0.5%。对于二氧化碳,CAS #是124-38-9。
Threshold Limit Value-Time Weighted Average (TLV-TWA) is the time-weighted average concentration for a normal 8-hour workday and 40-hour workweek, to which nearly all workers may be repeatedly exposed, day after day, without adverse effect.

Carbon dioxide is produced as a crude by-product of a number of manufacturing processes. Carbon dioxide is a by-product of steam reforming of methane, propane or naphtha. The fermentation of sugar to alcohol and the production of lime and sodium phosphate also generate carbon dioxide. Additionally, carbon dioxide exists in natural wells. Once the product has been isolated, impurities are filtered out, moisture is removed in driers, and the purified carbon dioxide is compressed for liquefaction.

Liquid carbon dioxide is used widely in the food industry for freezing meats, poultry, vegetables, and fruits. Solid carbon dioxide (dry ice) is used to cool meats prior to grinding and also to refrigerate meat and poultry during transit. Soft drinks, wines, and beers are produced using gaseous carbon dioxide for carbonation. Carbon dioxide is used in water treatment to neutralize alkaline water. Liquid carbon dioxide is also used to increase recovery from oil and gas wells. Other industrial uses include the production of chemicals, plastics, rubber, metals, and electronic components.

Bulk carbon dioxide is typically stored as a liquid in storage tanks with capacities of 6, 14, 26, and 50 tons. Tanks are insulated by polyurethane foam with a vapor barrier which provides weather protection. The tanks are fabricated from carbon steel according to ASME Standards. Carbon dioxide is maintained below 305 psig by a refrigeration unit and above 245 psig with a pressure buildup coil so that carbon dioxide can be stored for an in definite period without venting. Smaller liquid quantities are stored and shipped in cryogenic liquid cylinders with a capacity of 384 pounds (3352 standard cubic feet). Cryogenic liquid cylinders are vacuum-jacketed and can hold product for long periods without venting. Cryogenic liquid cylinders can either supply liquid or gas and liquid. A typical cryogenic liquid cylinder is illustrated in Figure 1.
大量的二氧化碳典型地作为液体储存在容量为6、14、26、和50吨的储存罐里。用聚亚安酯泡沫把储存罐和防止恶劣天气的蒸气屏障隔离开。按照ASME的标准用碳素钢制造储存罐。通过一个制冷装置把二氧化碳维持在305 psig以下,同时通过一个压力积累蛇管把二氧化碳维持在245 psig以上,这样不用通风二氧化碳就可以储存一定的时间。较小量的液体在容量为384磅(3352标准立方英尺)的低温液体钢瓶中储存和运输。低温液体钢瓶带有真空夹层,可以不用通风而长期储存产品。低温液体钢瓶可以或者供应液体,或者供应气体和液体。一个典型的低温液体钢瓶如图1所示。

Properties 性质
Molecular Weight分子量 .............................................................. 44.01
Boiling Point沸点 @ l atm (sublimes升华) ....................................... -109.3F (-78.5C)
Freezing Point凝固点 @ 76 psia ................................................... -69.9F (-56.6C)
Critical Temperature临界温度 ......................................................... 87.9F (31.0C)
Critical Pressure临界压力 ................................................................ 1070 psia (72.9 atm)
Density密度, Liquid液体 @ -35F (-37C), 11 atm .......................... 68.74 lb./cu. ft.
Density密度, Gas气体 @ 68F (20C), 1 atm .................................... 0.115 lb./cu. ft.
Density密度, Solid固体 @ -110F (-79C), 1 atm ............................ 97.4 lb./cu. ft.
Specific Gravity比重, Gas气体(Air空气 = 1) @ 68F (20C), 1 atm ........ 1.53
Specific Gravity比重, Liquid液体 @ -35F (-37C), 11 atm ............ 1.10
Specific Volume比容 @ 68F (20C), 1 atm .............................. 8.70 cu. ft./lb.
Latent Heat of Sublimation潜在升华热 ............................................... 10900 Btu/lb. mole
Solubility in Water在水中的溶解度 @ 68F (20C), 1 atm ........................... 87.8% by volume

Exposure Reactions
Concentration浓度 Effect影响
1% .......................... Slight increase in breathing rate.呼吸频率稍微增加
2% .......................... Breathing rate increases to 50% above normal level. Prolonged exposure can cause headache, tiredness. 呼吸频率增加到正常水平以上50% 。持续暴露会导致头痛、疲劳。
3% .......................... Breathing increases to twice normal rate and becomes labored. Weak narcotic effect. Impaired hearing, headache, increase in blood pressure and pulse rate.呼吸增加到正常水平的两倍和变得吃力。弱麻醉作用削弱了听力,头痛,血压和脉搏增加。
4–5% ...................... Breathing increases to approximately four times normal rate; symptoms of intoxication become evident and slight choking may be felt呼吸增加到正常水平的大约四倍;中毒症状变得明显,可以感到轻微的窒息。
5–10% .................... Characteristic sharp odor noticeable. Very labored breathing, headache, visual impairment, and ringing in the ears. Judgment may be impaired, followed within minutes by loss of consciousness.特征性的强烈气味显而易见。呼吸非常吃力,头痛,视力减弱和耳鸣。判断力下降,几分钟内失去知觉。
50–100%................. Unconsciousness occurs more rapidly above 10% level. Prolonged exposure to high concentrations may eventually result in death from asphyxiation.意识不清在10%水平上发生得更加迅速。持续暴露于高浓度会最终导致由于窒息而死亡。

Carbon dioxide is shipped and stored as a liquefied compressed gas in hollow steel and aluminum cylinders. The cylinders have a concave base which allows the cylinders to stand upright and are tapered to a small opening on the top. The tapered or open end is threaded to receive a cylinder valve or other suitable outlet connection. Safety relief devices are part of the cylinder valve or the outlet connections. A threaded neck ring is secured to the tapered end of the cylinder to allow a protective cylinder cap to be installed. Cylinders are manufactured according to Department of Transportation(DOT) specifications. Cylinders in carbon dioxide service are hydrostatically tested upon manufacture, and every five years thereafter at 5/3 times the service pressure.

Gas Cylinder Valves气体钢瓶阀门
The Compressed Gas Association and the American National Standards Institute have adopted a thread size of 0.825 inch—14 external right-hand threads per inch—designated as valve connection No. 320 for cylinders. This fitting incorporates a flat nipple and fiber washer for making the gas-tight seal. See Figure 2. For additional information on cylinder valves, request Air Products’ Safetygram-23: Cylinder Valves.
压缩气体协会和美国国家标准化学会已经采用了0.825英寸的螺距——每英寸14个右手外螺纹——指定它作为阀门的第320号接头用于钢瓶。这种装置结合一个平面螺纹接头和纤维垫圈,用于制造气密密封。见图2。要得到关于钢瓶阀门另外的资料,请参考Air Products的安全程序-23:钢瓶阀门。

Safety Devices安全装置
Bulk liquid storage tanks are protected against excessive pressures, which may result from heat leak, by reseatable relief devices. Cryogenic liquid cylinders are equipped with reseat able relief devices and are additionally protected with burst discs. Gas cylinders are protected from rupture due to fire by a frangible disc sometimes backed by a fusible metal with a melting temperature of about 212F(100C).

Identification: Gas Cylinders鉴别:气体钢瓶
Each cylinder is identified between the neck ring and shoulder by: 在颈环和肩部之间鉴别每个钢瓶的是通过:
1. The DOT specifications (3A, 3AA,etc.) controlling the manufacture of the container, followed by the service pressure rating in pounds per square inch.控制容器制造的DOT规格(3A, 3AA等),随后是以磅每平方英寸为单位的工作额定压力。
2. Serial number of the container.容器的序列号。
3. Manufacturer’s symbol and the owner’s symbol.制造商的标志和所有者的标志。
4. Month and year of the container manufacture.容器制造的月和年。
5. Month and year of subsequent 5-year retest of the container.容器随后五年一次重新测试的月和年。
6. Original inspector’s identification stamp.最初检查者的鉴别印记。
The neck ring usually is identified by the owner’s symbol or name.通常通过所有者的标志或名字来鉴别颈环。

Identification: Cryogenic Liquid Cylinders鉴别:低温液体钢瓶
Each cryogenic liquid cylinder is identified with the following information stamped permanently on the shoulder or top head of the jacket, on a permanently attached plate, or on the head protective ring.通过下列信息来鉴别每一个低温液体钢瓶,这些信息永久性地印在外壳的肩部或顶部上,印在一个永久性的附属板上,或者在顶部保护环上。
1. DOT-4L followed by the service pressure rating in pounds per square inch. DOT-4L,随后是以磅每平方英寸为单位的额定工作压力。
2. Serial number and identifying symbol; location of the number to be just below or immediately following the DOT mark; location of the symbol to be just below or immediately following the number.序列号和鉴别标志;数字的位置刚好在DOT标记的下面或紧随其后;标志的位置刚好在数字的下面或紧随其后。
3. Month and year of the container manufacture.容器制造的月和年。

Shipment of Carbon Dioxide: Bulk二氧化碳的运输:大量
Carbon dioxide is transported to bulk supply systems by insulated liquid tankers which must conform to DOT Regulations as set forth in the Code of Federal Regulations, Title 49. DOT 103/4" x 103/4" nonflammable gas placards are required on the trailer.
通过隔热液体罐车来把  运输到大量供应系统。液体罐车必须符合DOT规格,正如Code of Federal Regulations, Title 49里阐明的。在拖车上要求有DOT的103/4英尺x 103/4英尺的不可燃气体张贴。

Shipment of Carbon Dioxide: Cylinders二氧化碳的运输:钢瓶
The shipment of carbon dioxide gas cylinders by surface transportation must conform to DOT Regulations, Title49, which describes labeling and identification required. A DOT 4" x 4" nonflammable gas label or tag is required for common carrier shipments. Figure 3 illustrates the label (black printing on green) that is required.
Cryogenic liquid carbon dioxide cylinders are shipped under DOT Exemption Number 7638. A copy of this exemption must be carried aboard each vessel, aircraft or motor vehicle used to transport the cylinders. Each cryogenic cylinder must be plainly marked on both sides near the middle, in letters at least two inches high on a contrasting background, “DOT-E7638.” The DOT 4" x 4" green nonflammable gas label or tag is also required for common carrier shipments. Shipments by air must conform with Title 49 Code of Federal Regulations(FAA Regulations). The official publication of the Department of Transportation concerning transport of hazardous materials by any mode is 49 CFR.
低温液体二氧化碳钢瓶运输的DOT免税号是7638。用于运输钢瓶的每个船舶、飞机或汽车上必须携带一个免税的拷贝。必须在每个低温液体钢瓶的两边靠近中间的位置上用至少两英寸高的字母在对比强烈的背景上标明:“DOT-E7638”。对于公用运输业者运输,也要求贴有一个DOT的4英尺x4英尺的不可燃气体标志或标签。空运必须遵守Title 49 Code of Federal Regulations(FAA Regulations)。49 CFR是交通部的关于以任何方式运输危险物质的官方出版物。

Safety Considerations对安全的考虑
Carbon dioxide is stored and transported as a liquefied compressed gas. The following hazards are associated with liquefied compressed carbon dioxide.
1. High pressure involved in storage and service equipment.同储存和使用设备相关的高压。
2. Carbon dioxide is 1.5 times heavier than air and will not readily disperse in the atmosphere. Asphyxiation may be a hazard in confined areas. 二氧化碳比空气重1.5倍,在空气中不易扩散。窒息是在狭窄区域的危险。
3. Carbon dioxide in high concentrations is toxic to humans. See the toxicity section for effects on humans.高浓度二氧化碳对人体有毒。关于对人体的影响,见毒性部分。
4. Vaporizing carbon dioxide can produce very cold temperatures. Spillage of liquid carbon dioxide on the skin can cause freeze burn or frostbite. Carbon dioxide, solid below 61 psig, is very cold and sublimes so quickly that prolonged contact with the skin causes freeze burn or frostbite.正在蒸发的二氧化碳会造成极低的温度。液体二氧化碳溅到皮肤上会导致冻伤。压力在61 psig以下的二氧化碳固体温度极低,升华得非常快,持续接触皮肤会导致冻伤。

1. Provide adequate ventilation. 提供充分的通风。
2. The atmosphere in areas in which carbon dioxide gas may be vented and collect should be tested with a portable or continuous monitoring carbon dioxide gas analyzer to ensure ventilation is adequate.应该用移动或连续的二氧化碳监测分析仪来测试可能排出或积累二氧化碳气体的区域,以保证通风是充分的。

Handling and Storage操作和储存
1. Never drop cylinders or permit them to strike each other violently. 禁止使钢瓶摔倒或使它们彼此剧烈碰撞。
2. Cylinders should be assigned a definite area for storage. The area should be dry, cool, and well ventilated, and preferably fire-resistant. Keep cylinders protected from excessive temperatures by storing them away from radiators or other sources of heat. 应安排有确定的钢瓶存放区域。该区域应该使干燥、凉爽、通风良好,最好是防火的。远离散热器或其它热源,使钢瓶接触不到过高的温度。
3. Cylinders may be stored in the open, but in such cases should be protected against extremes of weather and from damp ground to prevent rusting. 钢瓶可以存放在室外,但应防止受到恶劣天气的影响,同时不能接触潮湿的地面,以防生锈。
4. The valve protection cap should be left in place until the cylinder has been secured against a wall, a bench, or placed in a cylinder stand, and is ready to be used. 在钢瓶靠着墙壁、工作台固定或放置在钢瓶座准备使用之前,阀门保护帽要一直留在原位。
5. Avoid dragging or sliding cylinders, even for short distances. Cylinders should be moved by a suitable hand truck. 避免拉拽或滑动钢瓶,即使是很短的距离。搬动钢瓶要使用合适的手推车。
6. Do not use cylinders as rollers for moving material or other equipment. 禁止把钢瓶当作搬运材料或其它设备的转子。
7. Never tamper with safety devices in valves or cylinders. 禁止堵塞阀门或钢瓶的安全装置。
8. When returning empty cylinders, close the valve before shipment. Leave some positive pressure in the cylinder. Replace any valve outlet and protective caps originally shipped with the cylinder. Mark and label the cylinder EMPTY. Do not store full and empty cylinders together. 返还空瓶时,在运输之前关闭阀门,使钢瓶内部保持正压。替换最初同钢瓶一起运输的阀门排气口和保护帽。贴上“空”的标记。禁止把满瓶和空瓶存放在一起。
9. No part of a cylinder should be subjected to a temperature above125F (52C). Prevent sparks or flames from welding or cutting torches or any other source from coming in contact with cylinders. Do not permit cylinders to come in contact with electrical apparatus or circuits. 钢瓶任何部分都不能接触到125F (52C)以上的温度。防止火花、来自焊接或切割以及其它源头的火焰接触到钢瓶。禁止钢瓶接触电力设备或电路。
10. Use regulators and pressure relief devices when connecting cylinders to circuits having lower pressure service ratings. 当把钢瓶连接到较低额定工作压力的回路上时,要使用调整器和减压装置。
11. Use check valves or traps to prevent backflow of water or other contaminants if backflow can occur into the cylinder. If backflow occurs, mark the cylinder CONTAMINATED. Notify the supplier immediately.如果有可能发生回流入钢瓶,使用止回阀或陷阱来防止水或其它污染物回流。如果发生了回流,标记钢瓶为已污染。立刻通知供应商。
12. Provide a safety relief valve on any part of a system where liquid can be trapped between closed valves in lines or vessels. 为系统的任何可能积聚液体的部分提供安全减压阀。这些部分一般在管道或容器的关闭的阀门之间。
13. Always keep liquid cylinders upright. Hand trucks are recommended for moving empty and full containers. Containers may be “end-walked” but should never be rolled using the liquid level gauge housing as a pivot point. 总是保持钢瓶直立。推荐使用手推车来搬运满瓶和空瓶。使用设计用于钢瓶搬运的合适的手推车。垂直位置。禁止拖拉、旋转或滑动容器。钢瓶可能走不动,但禁止用液体水平量表的外壳作为支点来旋转钢瓶。
14. Know and understand the properties, uses, and safety precautions for carbon dioxide before using the gas and/or associated equipment. 在使用气体和/或相关设备之前,一定要知道和理解
15. Always open a carbon dioxide cylinder valve slowly.总是慢慢地开启二氧化碳钢瓶阀门。
16. If a cylinder protective cap is extremely difficult to remove, do not apply excessive force or pry the cap loose with a bar inserted into the ventilation openings. Attach a label or tag to the cylinder, identifying the problem and return the cylinder to the supplier. 如果钢瓶保护帽很难移动,不要使太大的力或者把撬杠插入通风口来撬。贴上说明问题的标签,把钢瓶返还给供应商。
17. Wrenches should not be used on valves equipped with a hand wheel. If the valve is faulty, attach a label or tag to the cylinder identifying the problem and return the cylinder to the supplier. 配有手轮的阀门不能使用扳手。如果阀门有问题,贴上说明问题的标签,把钢瓶返还给供应商。
18. Compressed gas cylinders should not be refilled except by qualified producers of compressed gases. 除了有资格的压缩气体生产商外,不能重新灌装压缩气体钢瓶。
19. Shipment of a compressed gas cylinder filled without the consent of the owner is a violation of Federal Law. 未经所有者同意运输压缩气体钢瓶是侵犯联邦法律的行为。

Personnel Equipment人员装备
Safety glasses and shoes and work gloves are recommended when handling high-pressure cylinders. Safety glasses should be worn in areas where vapors are discharged. Use loose fitting gloves of material that will offer cold protection, such as leather, when working with cold liquid or vapor.
Use a self-contained breathing apparatus in oxygen-deficient atmospheres or where the carbon dioxide concentration exceeds 1.5%.在缺氧空气或二氧化碳浓度超过1.5%的地方使用自给式呼吸器。

First Aid急救
Persons suffering from the toxic effects of carbon dioxide should be moved to areas with a normal atmosphere. SELF-CONTAINED BREATHING APPARATUSMAY BE NECESSARY TO PREVENT TOXICEXPOSURE OR ASPHYXIATION OF RESCUE WORKERS. Assisted respiration and supplemental oxygen should be given if the victim is not breathing. Frozen tissues should be flooded or soaked with tepid water (not to exceed 107F [42C]). DO NOT USE HOT WATER. Cryogenic burns which result in blistering or deeper tissue freezing should be seen promptly by a physician.
应当马上把二氧化碳中毒的人转移到有正常空气的区域。自给式呼吸器对于防止救援人员的有毒暴露或窒息是必要的。如果受害人呼吸停止,应当进行人工呼吸和输氧。应当用温水(不超过107F [42C])冲洗或浸润冻结的组织。禁止使用热水。导致起泡或深层组织结冻的低温烧伤应该迅速由医生来处理。

Fire Fighting救火
Carbon dioxide is nonflammable and is an extinguishing agent for Class B &C fires.

Air Products and Chemicals, Inc.
7201 Hamilton Boulevard Allentown, PA 18195-1501
Telephone电话: (610) 481-4911
Fax传真: (610) 481-5900

Reference Sources参考资料来源
Air Products Material Safety Data Sheets  Air Products材料安全数据表
Air Products and Chemicals, Inc.
Allentown, PA 18195-1501

Air Products Safetygrams Air Products安全程序
Air Products and Chemicals, Inc.
Allentown, PA 18195-1501

Handbook of Compressed Gases, Third Edition压缩气体手册,第三版
Compressed Gas Association压缩气体协会, Inc.
Arlington, VA 22202

NIOSH Pocket Guide to Chemical Hazards  NIOSH化学危险品袖珍指南
Lab Safety Supply Co.
Janesville, WI 53547-1368

Compressed Gas Association压缩气体协会
Pamphlet P-1, Safe Handling of Compressed Gases in Containers 手册P-1,容器内压缩气体的安全操作

Additional Safety grams From Air Products来自Air Products的其它安全程序
Safetygram-1 Oxygen 安全程序-1 氧
Safetygram-2 Nitrogen安全程序-2 氮
Safetygram-3 Argon安全程序-3 氩
Safetygram-4 Hydrogen安全程序-4 氢
Safetygram-5 Helium安全程序-5 氦
Safetygram-6 Liquid Oxygen安全程序-6 液态氧
Safetygram-7 Liquid Nitrogen安全程序-7 液态氮
Safetygram-8 Liquid Argon安全程序-8 液态氩
Safetygram-9 Liquid Hydrogen安全程序-9 液态氢
Safetygram-10 Handling, Storage, and Use of Compressed Gas Cylinders
安全程序-10 压缩气体钢瓶的操作、储存和使用
Safetygram-11 Emergency Action in Handling Leaking Compressed Gas Cylinders
Safetygram-12 Safe Handling and Use of Air Products Compressed Gases and Equipment
安全程序-12 Air Products的压缩气体和设备的安全操作和使用
Safetygram-13 Acetylene安全程序-13 乙炔
Safetygram-14 Don’t Turn a Cylinder Into a Rocket安全程序-14 不要把钢瓶变成火箭
Safetygram-15 Cylinder Safety Devices安全程序-15 钢瓶安全装置
Safetygram-16 Safe Handling of Cryogenic Liquids安全程序-16低温液体的安全操作
Safetygram-17 Dangers of Oxygen-Deficient Atmospheres安全程序-17 缺氧空气的危险
Safetygram-18 Carbon Dioxide安全程序-18 二氧化碳
Safetygram-19 Carbon Monoxide安全程序-19一氧化碳
Safetygram-20 Nitrous Oxide安全程序-20一氧化二氮
Safetygram-21 Safe Handling Procedures for Medical Oxygen Cylinders and the Use of Regulating Equipment
安全程序-21 医用氧钢瓶的安全操作程序和调整设备的使用
Safetygram-22 Liquid Helium安全程序-22 液态氦
Safetygram-23 Cylinder Valves安全程序-23 钢瓶阀门
Safetygram-24 Hydrogen Chloride安全程序-24 氯化氢
Safetygram-25 20% Fluorine/Nitrogen安全程序-25 20%的氟/氮
Safetygram-26 Silane 安全程序-26 硅烷

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